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https://a.storyblok.com/f/236174/2915x3644/9c60184724/research-insect-based-petfood.webp

Pesquisa

Baseamos tudo o que fazemos em dados e ciência, tendo a saúde de cães e gatos como nossa principal prioridade. Saiba mais sobre a ciência por trás da proteína de inseto ou sobre os projetos de pesquisa que realizamos em parceria com parceiros e universidades respeitados.

https://a.storyblok.com/f/236174/1080x1080/558ae5ba4e/dr-nicky-with-dog-research-1-1.webp

Nosso veterinário principal, Dr. Nicky

"A pesquisa mais recente mostra que a refeição de proteína das larvas da Hermetia illucens tem um alto teor de aminoácidos e uma alta digestibilidade dos aminoácidos, tornando-a uma fonte de proteína de muito alta qualidade."

- Dr. Nicky Sluczanowski, Veterinário Principal e Chefe de Desenvolvimento de Produtos

Conheça o Nicky

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Nicky é uma veterinária de pequenos animais de Adelaide, Austrália, com ampla experiência clínica. Em Adelaide, ela ainda trabalha em meio período cuidando de cães e gatos (e ocasionalmente cangurus) no Adelaide Animal Emergency & Referral Centre.

Juntamente com nossos parceiros de pesquisa, ela lidera projetos científicos para aumentar o conhecimento sobre a alimentação à base de insetos e hoje é uma das veterinárias mais proeminentes do mundo no campo de alimentos à base de insetos para cães e gatos, tendo aparecido em inúmeros artigos e podcasts.

https://a.storyblok.com/f/236174/3024x3024/98281fd669/karin-nicky-at-protix-insect-protein.webp

Resumo da pesquisa sobre insetos na comida para animais de estimação.

Antes de os produtos à base de insetos serem lançados no mercado, a pesquisa começou para garantir o valor nutricional e a segurança desses alimentos. Estudos tiveram diferentes focos, onde alguns examinaram a composição nutricional, outros como alimento afeta vários parâmetros do animal que o consome. Abaixo, resumimos o estado atual da pesquisa sobre proteína de insetos para cães e gatos.

Por que usamos as larvas da mosca soldado negro

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Os produtos à base de insetos da Petgood são baseados em apenas uma fonte de proteína animal, a proteína de insetos. A espécie de inseto utilizada são as larvas da mosca soldado negro (Hermetia illucens).

Existem várias razões pelas quais as larvas da mosca soldado negro foram escolhidas como base para nossas dietas. As larvas são incrivelmente nutritivas e ricas em proteínas, aminoácidos essenciais e ácidos graxos benéficos. Elas são resistentes a doenças e têm um crescimento naturalmente rápido, o que significa que antibióticos, pesticidas ou hormônios de crescimento nunca precisam ser usados na produção. A proteína de inseto também é sustentável, pois requer significativamente menos recursos na forma de ração, terra e água para produzir a mesma quantidade de proteína e causa emissões de gases de efeito estufa mais baixas em comparação com fontes de proteína mais tradicionais.

A espécie está globalmente distribuída e não é considerada uma praga ou vetor de doenças potencial. As larvas da mosca soldado negro são uma espécie controlada e aprovada para consumo tanto por humanos quanto por animais domésticos na União Europeia desde 2016.

Valor nutricional comparado às necessidades do cão e do gato

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Estudos que avaliaram o conteúdo nutricional das larvas da mosca soldado negro analisaram, entre outras coisas, o perfil de aminoácidos e o compararam com as necessidades de cães e gatos. Outros estudos examinaram a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos individuais, ou seja, o quão bem o sistema digestivo do animal pode absorvê-los. O resultado é que as larvas da mosca soldado negro têm um alto teor de aminoácidos essenciais (McCusker et al, 2014) e uma alta digestibilidade de aminoácidos individuais (Bosch et al, 2016).

Segurança e digestibilidade em gatos e cães

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A digestibilidade é uma medida de quanto de um nutriente o corpo pode absorver. Simplificando, o que se faz é alimentar o animal com a proteína e, em seguida, medir em amostras fecais quanto do nutriente o animal conseguiu absorver. Uma boa digestibilidade da proteína é considerada acima de 80%, e a proteína da mosca soldado negro tem uma média de cerca de 85%, ou seja, uma alta digestibilidade (El-Wahab et al, 2021; Penazzi, 2021; Sungho, 2021; Yi hu 2020).

Outros estudos examinaram a segurança, ou seja, avaliaram se a dieta à base de insetos tem impacto em parâmetros como qualidade das fezes, valores sanguíneos, qualidade da pelagem ou outros achados clínicos. A conclusão dos estudos é que a dieta à base de insetos é segura, onde os animais participantes mantiveram bons valores e permaneceram saudáveis durante todo o estudo, sem qualquer anormalidade relatada (Freel et al 2021; Kröger, 2020).

Como desenvolvemos nossas receitas

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A equipe veterinária da Petgood, juntamente com especialistas em nutrição animal, desenvolve todas as receitas para garantir que os alimentos atendam e/ou excedam as recomendações nutricionais emitidas pela FEDIAF. É dada uma grande ênfase em garantir que nossas receitas forneçam a melhor nutrição possível e, sempre que possível, ajudem a prevenir doenças e proporcionem as melhores condições para a saúde do animal. Todos os nossos alimentos são dietas completas e equilibradas, o que significa que atendem a todas as necessidades nutricionais do cão ou gato.

https://a.storyblok.com/f/236174/4320x4320/a37c9b3ec3/research-partners.webp

Petgood x Pesquisa

A ciência é a base de tudo o que fazemos, desde o conceito e desenvolvimento do produto até o nosso suporte ao cliente. Trabalhamos em estreita colaboração com especialistas da indústria e acadêmicos em suas áreas, como veterinários, nutricionistas e principais pesquisadores acadêmicos, para desenvolver produtos de nutrição ótima para animais de estimação. Abaixo, você pode ler mais sobre nossos projetos mais recentes.

Artigo publicado sobre os benefícios para a saúde da gordura de insetos

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A Dra. Nicky Sluczanowski, veterinária principal da Petgood, co-autorou um artigo científico investigando as pesquisas atuais sobre as potenciais aplicações da gordura da mosca soldado negro (BSF) na nutrição de animais de estimação. Você pode acessar o artigo completo aqui.

O artigo detalhou o seguinte:

Atividade antimicrobiana: A gordura da BSF possui propriedades antimicrobianas fortes documentadas contra espécies de bactérias patogênicas, incluindo Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli, Clostridium perfringens e Pseudomonas aureginosa.

Saúde cerebral de cães idosos: O triglicerídeo de cadeia média (MCT) ácido láurico é predominante na gordura da BSF e pode ter aplicações significativas como suplemento para a saúde cerebral de cães idosos. Áreas potenciais para futuras pesquisas incluem aplicações para demência e epilepsia em cães.

Pesquisas mais recentes da Petgood

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A Petgood tem o orgulho de liderar um projeto de pesquisa atual com o Grupo de Nutrição Animal da Universidade de Wageningen. Este estudo está investigando alimentos para animais de estimação à base de insetos e tem como objetivo desbloquear ainda mais os benefícios nutricionais da Mosca Soldado Negro na nutrição de animais de companhia. Mal podemos esperar para compartilhar mais detalhes em breve!

Pesquisas mais recentes da Petgood

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A Petgood tem o orgulho de liderar um projeto de pesquisa atual com o Grupo de Nutrição Animal da Universidade de Wageningen. Este estudo está investigando alimentos para animais de estimação à base de insetos e tem como objetivo desbloquear ainda mais os benefícios nutricionais da Mosca Soldado Negro na nutrição de animais de companhia. Mal podemos esperar para compartilhar mais detalhes em breve!

https://a.storyblok.com/f/236174/1080x1080/358eed0c4c/dental-health-protix-study-eng.webp

Petgood x Pesquisa

A ciência é a base de tudo o que fazemos, desde o conceito e desenvolvimento do produto até o nosso suporte ao cliente. Trabalhamos em estreita colaboração com especialistas da indústria e acadêmicos em suas áreas, como veterinários, nutricionistas e principais pesquisadores acadêmicos, para desenvolver produtos de nutrição ótima para animais de estimação. Abaixo, você pode ler mais sobre nossos projetos mais recentes.

Artigo publicado sobre os benefícios para a saúde da gordura de insetos

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A Dra. Nicky Sluczanowski, veterinária principal da Petgood, co-autorou um artigo científico investigando as pesquisas atuais sobre as potenciais aplicações da gordura da mosca soldado negro (BSF) na nutrição de animais de estimação. Você pode acessar o artigo completo aqui.

O artigo detalhou o seguinte:

Atividade antimicrobiana: A gordura da BSF possui propriedades antimicrobianas fortes documentadas contra espécies de bactérias patogênicas, incluindo Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli, Clostridium perfringens e Pseudomonas aureginosa.

Saúde cerebral de cães idosos: O triglicerídeo de cadeia média (MCT) ácido láurico é predominante na gordura da BSF e pode ter aplicações significativas como suplemento para a saúde cerebral de cães idosos. Áreas potenciais para futuras pesquisas incluem aplicações para demência e epilepsia em cães.

Pesquisas mais recentes da Petgood

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A Petgood tem o orgulho de liderar um projeto de pesquisa atual com o Grupo de Nutrição Animal da Universidade de Wageningen. Este estudo está investigando alimentos para animais de estimação à base de insetos e tem como objetivo desbloquear ainda mais os benefícios nutricionais da Mosca Soldado Negro na nutrição de animais de companhia. Mal podemos esperar para compartilhar mais detalhes em breve!

Referências e estudos sobre proteína de inseto para animais de estimação

Aqui está uma seleção de estudos científicos publicados sobre o tema da proteína de inseto para gatos e cães. Os artigos estão em inglês.

Aminoácidos & digestibilidade

Amino acid content of selected insect species

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Sarah McCusker, Preston R. Buff, Zengshou Yu and Andrea J. Fascetti (2014), “Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods”, Journal of Nutritional Science (2014), vol. 3, e39, page 1 of 5
DOI: 10.1017/jns.2014.33

Abstract: In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council’s canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM).

Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects

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Bosch et al (2016) In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects for dog foods. Animal Feed Science and Technology Volume 221, Part A,November 2016, Pages 174-184
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.08.018

Abstract: Here we aimed to evaluate the protein quality of larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF), housefly (Musca domestica, HF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) and to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of their indigestible fractions. Clean freeze-dried larvae were subjected to in vitro simulated canine gastric and small intestinal digestion. Undigested insect residues, shrimp chitin and fructooligosaccharides (positive control, FOS) were incubated for 48h with inoculum with fresh feces from three dogs simulating large intestinal fermentation. The AA profiles differed among the larvae with proteins from BSF and YMW larvae containing more Val and less Met and Lys than HF larvae. The in vitro N digestibility of the HF (93.3%) and YMW (92.5%) was higher than BSF larvae (87.7%). The BSF larvae also had lower in vitro digestibility values for essential AA (92.4%) and non-essential AA (90.5%) compared to the larvae of the HF (96.6 and 96.5%) and YMW (96.9 and 95.3%). Gas production for FOS increased rapidly during the first 6h. Low and similar amounts of gas were found for HF larvae and chitin whereas gas production slowly increased over 30h and was slightly higher at 48h for BSF than for chitin. Gas production for YMW increased considerably between 6 and 20h. At 48h, gas produced for undigested residues was comparable to shrimp chitin and lower than FOS (P<0.001). Incubation with insect residues resulted in more N-acetylglucosamine than with shrimp chitin (P<0.05), suggesting higher microbial degradation of insect chitin. Fecal microbiota from one dog appeared to be better able to ferment the undigested residue of YMW as gas production increased considerably between 6 and 20h of incubation and was higher than for the microbiota from the other two dogs. The associated metabolite profile indicated that acetate, propionate and butyrate were the main fermentation products. Furthermore, formate was produced in relatively high amounts. It is concluded that the protein quality, based on the amino acid profile and digestibility, of selected insect larvae was high with the undigested insect fractions being at least partly fermented by the dog fecal microbiota.

Digestibility and safety of dry black soldier fly larvae meal

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Tarra A Freel, Alejandra McComb, Elizabeth A Koutsos “Digestibility and safety of dry black soldier fly larvae meal and black soldier fly larvae oil in dogs”, Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue 3, March 2021, skab047
DOI10.1093/jas/skab047

Abstract: Two trials were conducted to assess the acceptance, safety and digestibility of diets containing various inclusion levels of partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) meal and BSFL oil by dogs. In trial 1, 5 extruded diets were evaluated for acceptance in adult Beagle dogs (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female) during a 48-hr period. Diets contained graded levels of BSFL meal (5.0%, 10.0%, and 20.0%), or graded levels of BSFL oil (2.5% and 5.0%), and all diets were well accepted. Thus, a digestibility trial (trial 2) was run with 56 adult dogs (16 male, 40 female) allocated into 7 dietary treatments; dogs were offered an extruded control diet containing no BSFL meal or oil, or extruded diets where BSFL meal partially replaced poultry by-product meal and corn meal at dietary levels of 5%, 10%, or 20% inclusion, or diets with BSFL oil partially replacing poultry fat at a 1:1 ratio at levels of 1%, 2.5%, or 5% inclusion. The treatment diets were fed for 28 d, during which time dogs were monitored for health (via physical examinations, clinical observations, and blood chemistry and hematology) and ingredient evaluation (via body weight, feed consumption, stool observation, and fecal nutrient apparent total tract digestibility). There were no significant differences in body weight or food consumption between treatment groups (P > 0.05) and daily observations indicated that the general health of the animals was maintained throughout the study. Stool quality was maintained at 3.2 to 3.4 (on a 5-point scale with a score of 1 being watery diarrhea and a score of 5 being hard, dry, and crumbly) per treatment group over the fecal observation period (days 22 to 27), indicating a well formed, sticky stool. All group mean hematology and blood chemistry parameters remained within normal limits for dogs. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, protein, fat, and calories was not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). In general, amino acid digestibility was not impacted by treatment although some minor changes were observed. Apparent total tract digestibility was high for all nutrients examined.

Overall, it was concluded that BSFL meal and BSFL oil are well tolerated by dogs and their consumption results in no impact to physiology that would be concerning. Based on these data, BSFL meal and oil did not affect general health and could be included safely in dog diets.

Cães & ração à base de insetos

Black soldier fly as a sustainable protein source of canine food and its impacts on nutrient digestibility and fecal quality

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El Wahab et al. (2021) Insect Larvae Meal (Hermetia illucens) as a Sustainable Protein Source of Canine Food and Its Impacts on Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Quality, Animals2021,11(9), 2525
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092525

Abstract: Insect larvae meal has been proposed as a sustainable protein source for animal diets. This study aimed to provide information on including black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFL;Hermetia illucens) in comparison to poultry meal (PM) in the canine diet with regard to digestibility and fecal characteristics. In light of this trend, the levels of PM or BSFL meal were added to replace about 30% of dry matter of the basic extruded diet. Six Beagle dogs (BW 9.64 kg) were included in a cross-over experiment. Dogs fed a BSFL meal-based diet showed higher (p< 0.05) apparent protein digestibility (82.3%) compared to those offered a PM-based diet (80.5%). Apparent digestibility for fat was higher (p< 0.05) in groups fed the BSFL meal-based diet (94.5%) compared to those offered the PM-based diet (91.6%). The fecal consistency scores for dogs fed both diets were within an acceptable range (well-formed and firm). Fecal dry matter content was higher (p< 0.05) for dogs fed the PM-based diet (33.0%) compared to those offered the BSFL meal-based diet (28.0%). Including BSFL meal in dog food can be an appropriate source of protein without any negative effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal quality

Digestibility of an extruded complete dog food containing black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as protein source

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Penazzi et al (2021) In vivoandin vitroDigestibility of an Extruded Complete Dog Food Containing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae Meal as Protein Source Front Vet Sci 2021 Jun 11;8:65341
DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.653411

Abstract: Growing attention is being directed toward insects as a novel and sustainable source of protein for pet food. The aim of the study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility of a diet containing black soldier fly larvae as its main protein source. Moreover, the purpose of the study was to compare the traditionalin vivototal collection method with thein vivomarker method andin vitrodigestibility method. Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic dry diets containing either venison meal (CTRL diet) or black soldier fly larvae meal (BSF diet) as their primary sources of proteins were fed to six adult dogs, according to a Latin square design. The digestibility of nutrients was determined using bothin vivo("total collection" and "internal marker" approaches) andin vitromethods. The two diets showed similar nutrient digestibility values for dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ash, and phosphorus. However, a statistical trend (p= 0.066) was observed indicating greater protein digestibility in the BSF diet compared with the CTRL diet. Calcium digestibility was higher in the BSF diet compared with the CTRL diet (p= 0.018). On the contrary, fiber digestibility was lower in the insect-based diet compared with the venison diet (p< 0.001). There was no difference between total collection and internal marker methods in the assessment ofin vivodigestibility for any of the nutrients considered. Thein vitrodigestibility values for dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein, as well as the estimatedin vivodigestibility of organic matter and crude protein by the means of the predictive equation, were aligned with thein vivoresults, althoughin vitro estimations were consistently higher compared with those obtained byin vivo analysis.

Conclusion: Digestibility analysis of a dog food containing insect meal as the sole source of protein (36.5% inclusion) showed promising results in terms of it presenting similar values as a meat-based diet, indicating its suitability as a sustainable protein source for pet food. Moreover, the study showed that both thein vivo marker method and thein vitro method could be possible alternatives to the traditional total collection method in digestibility trials.

Evaluation of supplementation of black soldier fly larvae in beagle dogs

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X.J. Lei, T.H. Kim, J.H. Park, I.H. Kim (2019) “Evaluation of supplementation of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal in beagle dogs”, Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 19, No. 3 (2019) 767–777
DOI:10.2478/aoas-2019-0021

Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of supplementation of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) meal in beagle dogs. A total of nine healthy female beagles (initial body weight 12.1 ± 1.76 kg) were fed grain-based diets with three levels of BSFL meal (0, 1% or 2%) in a 42-day feeding trial. At the end of week 6 of the experiment, all dogs were intraperitoneally challenged with escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 100 μg/kg of body weight. Albumin concentration was linearly increased with increasing BSFL meal level (P<0.05). A linear increase (P<0.05) in calcium concentration was observed when increasing dietary BSFL meal. Although dietary treatments did not affect the digestibility of ether extract, the digestibility of dry matter and crude protein were linearly increased with increasing the level of BSFL meal. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α was linearly decreased but glutathione peroxidase (GPx) concentration was linearly increased when increasing the level of BSFL meal at 6 h after challenge (P<0.05). In addition, there were quadratic increases in concentrations of GPx and su- peroxide dismutase with increasing dietary BSFL meal level at 3 h after challenge (P<0.05).

These findings from the present study demonstrate that BSFL meal can be supplemented in the diet to convert beneficial effects to beagle dogs, indicated as improved digestibility of dry matter and crude protein and anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity.

Evaluation of an extruded diet for adult dogs containing larvae meal from the black soldier fly

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Susan Kröger, Carolin Heide , Jürgen Zentek (2020), “Evaluation of an extruded diet for adult dogs containing larvae meal from the Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)”, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise- Str. 49, 14195, Berlin, Germany
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114699

Abstract: Insects have experienced an increasing interest as a protein source in recent years. However, their suitability as a protein source for dogs was not yet widely investigated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare two extruded diets for adult dogs containing either larvae meal from black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens; HI) or lamb meal as the predominant protein source with regard to apparent fecal nutrient digestibility and the influence on fecal and immunological parameters. Twelve Beagles were used in this cross-over study and divided into two groups. The test diet with 200 g/kg HI larvae meal (HI) was compared with a control diet containing lamb meal (CON). Dogs were fed each diet for a period of five weeks. Blood samples for a complete blood count, lymphocyte phenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation tests were taken at the end of each feeding period. The latter was either mitogen- or feed antigen-induced with different protein concen- trations of HI larvae meal (30–500 μg protein/mL). Fecal samples were collected for five days during each feeding period. The coefficient of the total apparent fecal digestibility (CTTAD) of macronutrients, fecal metabolites, the output and the dry matter content of the feces were analyzed. D-Glucosamine as indicator for chitin was analyzed by high-performance anion-ex- change chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection in the diet and the feces. The chi- tinase activity was determined in the feces. The fecal output was reduced in dogs fed the HI diet (P = 0.038). The CTTAD of dry matter was higher (P = 0.002) when dogs were fed HI compared to CON (0.832 vs. 0.818) and the CTTAD of crude protein was higher (P = 0.002) when dogs received CON compared to HI (0.792 vs. 0.773). Concentrations of acetate (P = 0.011) and ammonium (P = 0.001) were higher in CON. The fecal score differed (P = 0.041) between HI (2.25) and CON (2.04), but both feeding groups had a formed and dry fecal consistency. The chitin concentration was numerically higher in the feces of dogs fed HI (92.2 g/kg DM) compared to CON (2.9 g/kg DM), the fecal chitinase activity did not differ between both diets. Complete blood counts, lymphocyte phenotyping and proliferation were not affected. In conclusion, the HI larvae meal in a dry dog diet was tolerated without adverse signs and did not affect immuno- logical measurements compared to a commercial dry diet with lamb meal, indicating that larvae meal from HI can be considered an “alternative” protein source for dog nutrition.

Replacement of poultry by-product meal by black soldier fly larvae meal in diets for dogs

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B. Agy Loureiro, R.K. Nobrega Cardoso, R. Silva Carvalho, W.A. Zamora Restan, M. Dalim, N. Martin Tome and A. Paul (2023). Book of Abstracts of the 74th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. LINK.

The study evaluated the use of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal in diets for dogs on digestibility, intestinal fermentation end-products and faecal microbiota. Two kibble iso-nutrient diets were developed using either poultry by-product (PBP) meal or BSFL meal as main protein. Eight beagle dogs were assigned in a cross-over design, with 2 treatments (diets) and 2 periods of 50 days each (with 7 days of wash-out between periods). In the first period, 4 dogs received either the PBP diet or the BSFL diet, while in the second period the diets were inverted. At day 15 of each period, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and fat digestibility; and metabolizable energy (ME) were determined by total faeces collection method for 5 days. Volatile fatty acids and ammonia were analysed in fresh faecal samples collected on days 21 to 24 of each period. After each period (50 d) fresh faeces were collected for metagenomic analysis using bacterial 16s rRNA marker gene sequence. Nutrients digestibility was similar between the food treatments, except for fat digestibility and diet ME, which was higher when dogs were fed BSFL food (P=0.01). Faecal ammonia was lower (151 vs 94 mmol/g faeces) when dogs were fed BSFL in comparison to PBP (P=0.004). BSFL diet promoted changes in faecal microbiota, with a significant difference in beta diversity, with taxa dissimilarity by Unifrac (P=0.036). BSFL diet promoted a higher relative abundance of Bacteroides (P=0.040), responsible to contributes to intestinal permeability; and Phocaeciola (P=0.028), considered a biomarker of human health. On the other hand, BSFL reduced the abundance of Lachnospira (P=0.003), positively correlated with intestinal butyrate production, despite no diet differences found for volatile fatty acid in faeces. In conclusion, the use of BSFL meal in dog diet didn’t affect the use of nutrients, but increased diet fat digestibility and ME; reduced faecal ammonia, and positively modified the faecal microbiome of dogs, favouring some beneficial bacteria genera.

Gatos & ração à base de insetos

Insect meals as novel protein sources in wet pet foods for adult cats

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Yi Hu et al (2020). PSVI-26 Insect meals as novel protein sources in wet pet foods for adult catsGet access Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_4, November 2020, Page 315.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa278.561

Abstract: As the human and pet populations increase, the human and pet food industries will experience a greater demand for animal-based protein sources. Finding alternative proteins that are nutritional adequate and safe for companion animals may contribute to diversification of protein sources and lower the demand for animal-based protein in pet food products. However, limited information is available on the nutritional value of insects for pet animals. Thus, the object of this study was to evaluate three different insect meals, Speckled cockroach (SC; Nauphoeta cinerea), Madagascar hissing cockroach (MC; Gromphadorhina portentosa) and superworm (SW; Zophobas morio larvae), added at the expense of chicken meal (control diet), as protein sources in retorted feline diets. This study was a complete randomized design, with a total of 28 cats (mean age = 2.1 ± 0.03 yr; mean BW= 4.9 ± 0.8 kg) randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments. All animal procedures were approved by the University of Illinois Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. All diet formulated meet or exceed the AAFCO (2018) nutrient profile. The experimental period was 28 d in length, with 7 d of diet adaptation (control diet) followed by 21 of feeding the assigned experimental diets. Fecal samples were collected at the last 4 d of experiment. All diets were well digested by the cats, and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (86.5–88.1%), organic matter (88.9–90.6%), fat (90.1–92.3%), crude protein (86.3–89.4%) did not differ among treatments (P > 0.05). Fecal scores were not affected by dietary treatment, ranging from 1.8 to 2.2 (5–point scale). Similarly, fecal branched-chain fatty acids, indole and phenol concentrations did not differ among treatments. Overall, the selected insect meals tested herein had no negative effects on macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics and metabolites, or overall health of adult cats.

The effects of a semi-synthetic diet with inclusion of black soldier fly larvae meal on health parameters of healthy adult cats

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Julia Guazzelli Pezzali, Anna Kate Shoveller (2021). The effects of a semi-synthetic diet with inclusion of black soldier fly larvae meal on health parameters of healthy adult cats Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue 10, October 2021.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab290

Abstract: In recent years, black soldier fly larvae meal (Hermetia illucens; BSFLM) has gained attention as a high value alternative protein source that is of great interest to the pet food industry. However, little is known regarding the effects of BSFLM on health parameters in adult cats. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of a semi-synthetic diet containing 4.6% inclusion of BSFLM on complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry profile of healthy adult cats. Healthy adult male cats (n = 8; 1.4 yr) were fed the experimental diet for 21 d (experimental period) to maintain BW. Cats were washed in on a commercial diet and blood samples were collected before the start and at the end of the experimental period to measure gross health parameters. Results were analyzed as one-way ANOVA using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS with cat as a random effect (SAS v. 9.4, The SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Cats lost an average of 5% of their BW (P = 0.0003) due to a concurrent decrease in food intake. A significant increase of alanine aminotransferase, chloride, potassium, sodium, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was observed on day 21 vs. baseline (P < 0.05). In contrast, albumin, amylase, calcium, cholesterol, eosinophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, mean platelet volume, red blood cells, total protein, total solid proteins, and urea decreased over time (P < 0.05). However, all CBC and serum biochemistry parameters stayed within reference range for adult cats, with exception of glucose and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration that were above and below the reference range, respectively. Transient increases in glucose concentrations were likely due to sedation with dexmedetomidine prior to blood collection. The changes observed over time in the aforementioned parameters are likely due to changes in macronutrient composition of the diets offered prior to and during the experimental period (commercial diet vs. semi-synthetic diet, respectively) and cannot be attributed solely to a unique property of BSFLM. In conclusion, cats fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 4% BSFLM inclusion for 21 d remained healthy with no clinically relevant changes in CBC and serum biochemistry parameters.

Black soldier fly larvae as an alternative protein source for canine and feline diets

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Do, Sungho (2021) Black soldier fly larvae as an alternative protein source for canine and feline diets. Dissertation at Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/items/124834

Abstract: The overall objective of this dissertation was to evaluate the nutrient composition of BSFL, its amino acid (AA) digestibilities using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster model, and its effects on palatability, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), fecal characteristics, and skin and coat health markers of healthy adult cats. Our first aim was to determine the effects of harvest age on nutrient and AA digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS)-like values of BSFL using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The BSFL were harvested at six different ages (days after hatch; day 0, 11, 14, 18, 23, and 29). Our second aim was to evaluate the effects of BSFL dietary calcium form and concentration on nutrient composition, nutrient and AA digestibilities, and DIAAS-like values for BSFL using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) were used to raise BSFL at different concentrations (1.2% of CaCl2, 1.2% of CaCO3, 0.75% of CaCO3, and 0.6% of CaCl2 and CaCO3). Our third aim was to determine palatability and ATTD of BSFL-containing canned diets, fecal characteristics, and skin and coat health markers of healthy adult cats consuming them. Cats were fed the canned diets formulated with poultry by-product meal (PBPM), BSFL meal, whole BSFL, and BSFL oil. In our first aim, we determined that all harvest ages of BSFL were contained high-quality protein that were well digested, but AA digestibilities were highest at days 14, 18, and 23. Threonine, Met, Cys, and Arg often were the first-limiting AA of BSFL based on DIAAS-like reference values for dogs and cats. In our second aim, we determined that nutrient and AA digestibilities were high (81% to 96% digestibilities), but not different among BSFL fed different calcium sources and concentrations. Aromatic AA (Phe + Tyr) and sulfur-containing AA (Met + Cys) often were the first-limiting AA based on DIAAS-like reference values for dogs and cats. In our third aim, we reported that the intake ratios were higher in cats fed canned diets containing BSFL meal (1.93:1), whole BSFL (2.03:1), and BSFL oil (1.57:1) compared with a poultry-based control diet. Fecal pH and scores and caloric intake were not different (P > 0.05) among diets, but fecal output (as-is, DM, and kcal/d) was highest (P < 0.05) for cats fed BSFL meal compared with those fed BSFL oil. The ATTD of acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was not different among treatments, while DM ATTD was greater (P < 0.05) for cats fed the BSFL oil diet than for those fed the BSFL meal diet. The ATTD of OM by cats fed control or BSFL oil diets was greater (P < 0.05) than for those fed the BSFL meal or BSFL whole diets. For crude protein (CP) and energy, ATTD was greatest (P < 0.05) for cats fed the BSFL oil diet and lowest for those fed the BSFL meal diet. Skin and coat health markers, including skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration status, hair imaging score, and skin and coat hair scores were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Similarly, hematology and a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to saline, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and concanavalin A (CONA) showed no differences (P > 0.05) among diets. A select serum metabolites were affected by diet (P < 0.05), but remained within reference ranges. This research provided information on the potential for using BSFL in pet foods. Based on our results, the suggested harvest age of BSFL ranges between 14 and 23 days because these ages provide the highest protein quality. Black soldier fly larvae raised with calcium chloride and calcium carbonate accumulate more calcium, but protein quality was similar. Finally, BSFL-derived ingredients hold strong potential for use in pet foods, whether it is included in extruded or canned foods.

Chemical composition of selected insect meals and their effect on apparent total tract digestibility, fecal metabolites, and microbiota of adult cats fed insect-based retorted diets

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Reilly et al (2022). Chemical composition of selected insect meals and their effect on apparent total tract digestibility, fecal metabolites, and microbiota of adult cats fed insect-based retorted diets. J Anim Sci 2022 Feb 1;100(2)
DOI: 10.1093/jas/skac024.

Abstract: Insect meals are novel and potentially sustainable protein sources. The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of speckled cockroach, Madagascar hissing cockroach, and superworm (SW) and to determine the effects of these insect meals on food intake, digestibility of macronutrients, fecal scores, metabolites, and microbiota of adult cats fed insect- or chicken-based wet pet foods. Among the three selected insect meals evaluated, oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid were the most prevalent fatty acids. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine were the most preponderant indispensable amino acids in these insect meals. All diets were well digested by the cats with no differences observed on macronutrient digestibility. Similarly, fecal scores did not differ among the treatments and were within the ideal range. No differences in fecal metabolite concentrations were observed. Only a few genera from Firmicutes and Bacteroidota phyla differ in cats fed SW diet in contrast to other dietary treatments. Overall, the selected insect meals evaluated herein are rich in linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid for cats. Insect-based retorted diets led to comparable results to those achieved with a chicken-based retorted diet, suggesting that these novel protein sources might be adequate alternative ingredients in feline diets.

Benefícios para a saúde das proteínas de insetos.

Clinical application of insect-based diet in canine allergic dermatitis

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Lee et al (2021). Clinical application of insect-based diet in canine allergic dermatitis. Korean Journal of of Veterinary Research, 61 (4).
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14405/kjvr.2021.61.e36

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of the short-term ap- plication of insect-based diet in canine allergic dermatitis. Total 19 atopic dogs with concurrent cutaneous adverse food reactions were enrolled and classified into 3 groups. The treatment group (n = 7) was fed insect-based diet, the positive control group (n = 6) was fed salmon-based diet, and the negative control group (n = 6) was fed commercial or homemade diet for 12 weeks. The degree of skin lesions was evalu- ated based on canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI-4). Addi- tionally, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pruritus visual analog scale were evalu- ated. All indices were evaluated every 4 weeks after the initial administration of hypo- allergenic diets. In the treatment group, significant decrease in the CADESI-4 score was observed at 8 weeks compared to the baseline score (= 0.031). There were sig- nificant differences in the CADESI-4 score between the groups at 8 weeks (= 0.008), 12 weeks (= 0.012), and TEWL at 12 weeks (= 0.022). This preliminary result demonstrates the potential hypoallergenicity of an insect-based diet through features that diminish cutaneous lesions and skin barrier dysfunction.

Effect of an insect protein-based diet on clinical signs of dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions

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Böhm TMSA, Klinger CJ, Gedon N, Udraite L, Hiltenkamp K, Mueller RS. Effect of an insect protein-based diet on clinical signs of dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2018 Oct;46(5):297-302. English, German.DOI: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30541169/

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new commercially available, insect protein-based diet on the clinical signs in those dogs via Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesion Index (CADLI), Pruritus Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) and coat quality score. A total of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis due to previously diagnosed adverse food reaction were included in this study. This food was the only food fed to the patients for 2 weeks. The lesion score improved in 12 out of 20 dogs in. Only two dogs out of 15, which completed the study, showed mild deterioration of their lesions (on average by 1.5 CADLI points). One dog's skin lesions were unchanged. Pruritus could be reduced in eight patients but remained unchanged in four dogs. Two further patients deteriorated minimally (on average by 1.5 pruritus score points) and one dramatically (8 pruritus score points). The coat quality was only evaluated in 14 dogs. Six of 14 dogs showed an improvement in coat quality. The improvement of the lesion scores (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.007) and coat quality (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.01) was significant, there was no significant change in pruritus scores (p = 0.53). The palatability was very good the compatibility was except for one patient very good. Based on these results, the investigated insect protein-based diet is an interesting alternative for dogs with food intolerance.

Potential application of black soldier fly fats in canine and feline diet formulations

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Ghina Kotob, Nicky Sluczanowski, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Nuria Martin Tome, Monika Dalim, Paul van der Raad, Kees Aarts, Aman Paul (2022). Potential application of black soldier fly fats in canine and feline diet formulations: A review of literature. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 25 (4)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2022.101994.

Abstract: Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae derived ingredients are being considered as sustainable alternatives to conventional animal derived ingredients in pet food formulations. In Europe, legislations permit the use of BSF fat in pet food formulations. However, BSF fat has received very little attention from pet food producers till now. This article examines literature regarding fatty acid profile and some minor components reported in BSF fat. Literature on digestibility, antimicrobial activity, intestinal immunity, and brain health improvement potential has also been carefully reviewed. Finally, some examples of pet food brands using BSF fat commercially were mentioned, and compilation of consumer review scores from popular review websites have also been illustrated. Literature reviewed in this article indicate that BSF fat is highly digestible and has interesting health benefits, thus supporting its use as functional pet food ingredient.

Black soldier fly larvae meal based extruded diets: potential to improve canine oral health.

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Neto et. al (2023). Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal based extruded diets: potential to improve canine oral health. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed,1(aop), 1-13.
DOI: 10.1163-23524588-20230098

Abstract: Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal-based pet food is gaining traction in Europe. In order to unlock the full potential of antimicrobial peptides and fatty acids present in BSFL meal, we evaluated the role of BSFL meal containing pet food in modulating the oral health of dogs. During this study eight female beagle dogs were fed with two iso-nutritive diets in a cross-over design with two periods of 50 days each. These diets were made using defatted BSFL meal or low ash poultry by product (PBP) meal as the main protein source. At the end of the first period, the animals underwent a wash out period of 7 days and the treatments were inverted following this treatment. Oral health of dogs was measured by: (1) count of colony forming unit of volatile sulfur producing bacterial (VSC) in dental plaque; (2) DNA extraction and amplification of 16S rRNA genes from saliva for bacterial profiling; and (3) oral malodor scoring. We found significant reduction of VSC (P<0.05) before and after 50 days of BSFL based pet food consumption. Oral malodor score was not significantly different before and after BSFL based pet food consumption. However, there was a strong tendency for malodor reduction related to BSFL fed groups (P=0.097). Finally, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between treatments in the relative abundance of Moraxella, with higher abundance in dog’s saliva when fed BSFL diets. This bacterial group is identified as a marker of oral health. In conclusion, the consumption of BSFL meal-based diets has strong potential to decrease VSC and positively modulates the saliva microbiota, which can suppress the occurrence of halitosis and improve oral health.